Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

ARGENTINA


Presidents

PP: Peronista Party
UCR (I): Radical Civic Union (Intransigent)
UCR (P): Radical Civic Union (People's)
FREJULI: Justicialist Liberation Front
PJ: Justicialist Party (former PP)
Edelmiro Julián Farrell         1944-1946 (+1980)   military 
Juan Domingo Perón Sosa         1946-1955 (+1974)   PP (1)
Eduardo Lonardi                 1955      (+1956)   military 
Pedro Eugenio Aramburu          1955-1958 (+1970)A  military 
Arturo Frondizi                 1958-1962 (+1995)   UCR (I) 
José María Guido                1962-1963 (+1975)   military 
Arturo Umberto Illía            1963-1966 (+1983)   UCR (P)  
Juan Carlos Onganía             1966-1970 (+1995)   military 
Roberto Marcelo Levingston      1970-1971           military 
Alejandro Agustín Lanusse Gelly 1971-1973 (+1996)   military 
Héctor José Cámpora             1973      (+1980)   FREJULI
Raúl Alberto Lastiri            1973      (+1978)   civilian (acting)
Juan Domingo Perón Sosa         1973-1974 (+)       PJ
María Estela Martínez de Perón  1974-1976           PJ
Jorge Rafael Videla             1976-1981           military (2)
Roberto Eduardo Viola           1981      (+1994)   military (3)
Horacio Tomás Liendo            1981                military (3) (interim)
Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri     1981-1982           military (3)
Alfredo Óscar Saint-Jean        1982                military (3) (interim)
Reynaldo Benito Bignone         1982-1983           military (4)
Raúl Alfonsín Foulkes           1983-1989           UCR
Carlos Saúl Menem Akil          1989-               PJ

(1) The Peronista Party was created by Perón in 1947

(2) 1st military junta (1976-79) members: Jorge Rafael Videla (Army comm. to 1978, gone on as civilian president); Orlando Ramón Agosti (Air Force comm.); Emilio Massera (Navy comm. to 1978)

(3) 2nd military junta (1979-82) members: Roberto Eduardo Viola (Army comm. 1978-81, from 1981 Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri); Omar Graffigna (Air Force comm.); Armando Lambruschini (Navy comm. 1978-82)

(4) 3rd military junta (1982-83) members: Cristino Nicolaides (Army comm.); Basilio Lami Dozo (Air Force comm., from 1982 Augusto Jorge Hughes); Jorge Anaya (Navy comm., from 1982 Rubén Franco) 



 

BAHAMAS


(The British Monarch is the head of the State; he is represented by a Governor-General)

Prime Ministers

 
LYNDEN OSCAR PINDLING   1973-1992 
HUBERT INGRAHAM         1992-


 

BARBADOS


(The British Monarch is the head of the State; he is represented by a Governor-General)

 

Prime Ministers

 
ERROL BARROW       1966-1976 (+1987)
J. M. G. ADAMS     1976-1985 (+)
BERNARD ST. JOHN   1985-1986 
ERROL BARROW       1986-1987 (+)
ERSKINE SANDIFORD  1987-1994
OWEN ARTHUR        1994-


 
 
 

BELIZE


(The British Monarch is the head of the State; he is represented by a Governor-General)

 

Prime Ministers

PUP: People's United Party
UDP: United Democratic Party

 

 
George Price     1981-1984  PUP
Manuel Esquivel  1984-1989  UDP
George Price     1989-1993  PUP
Manuel Esquivel  1993-      UDP


 
 
 
 

BOLIVIA


Presidents

MNR: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement
MNRI: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement of the Left
MIR: Movement of the Revolutionary Left
ADN: National Democratic Action

 

Gualberto Villarroel           1943-1946 (+)C     military
Néstor Guillén                 1946      ?        civilian 
Tomás Monge Gutiérrez          1946-1947 ?        military
Enrique Hertzog Garaizábal     1947-1949 (+1980)  civilian 
Mamerto Urriolagoitia          1949-1951 ?        civilian 
Hugo Ballivián Rojas           1951-1952 ?        military
Víctor Paz Estenssoro          1952-1956          MNR 
Hernán Siles Zuazo             1956-1960 (+1996)  MNR 
Víctor Paz Estenssoro          1960-1964          MNR 
René Barrientos Ortuño         1964-1965 (+1969)D military
René Barrientos/Alfredo Ovando 1965-1966          military (co-presidents)
Alfredo Ovando Candía          1966      (+1982)  military
René Barrientos Ortuño         1966-1969 (+)D     civilian 
Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas      1969      ?        civilian 
Alfredo Ovando Candía          1969-1970 (+1982)  military
Guachalla/Sattori/Albarracín   1970               military (triunvirate)
Juan José Torres González      1970-1971 (+1976)A military
Hugo Bánzer Suárez             1971-1978          military
Juan Pereda Asbún              1978               military
David Padilla Arancibia        1978-1979          military
Walter Guevara Arze            1979      (+1996)  civilian (caretaker)
Alberto Natusch Busch          1979               military
Lidia Gueyler Tejada           1979-1980          civilian (caretaker)
Luis García Meza Tejada        1980-1981          military
Torrelio/Bernal/Pammo          1981               military (triunvirate)  
Celso Torrelio Villa           1981-1982          military
Guido Vildoso Calderón         1982               military
Hernán Siles Zuazo             1982-1985 (+1996)  MNRI 
Víctor Paz Estenssoro          1985-1989          MNR 
Jaime Paz Zamora               1989-1993          MIR 
Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada      1993-1997          MNR 
Hugo Bánzer Suárez             1997-              ADN


 
 

BRAZIL


Presidents

Getúlio Dornelles Vargas             1930-1945 (+1954)S civilian
José Linhares                        1945-1946 (+1957)  civilian (caretaker)
Eurico Gaspar Dutra                  1946-1951 (+1974)  civilian
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas             1951-1954 (+)S     civilian
João Café Filho                      1954-1955 (+1970)  civilian (caretaker)
Carlos Coimbra da Luz                1955      ?        civilian (caretaker)
Nereu de Oliveira Ramos              1955-1956 (+1958)D civilian (caretaker)
Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira     1956-1961 (+1976)D civilian
Jânio da Silva Quadros               1961      (+1992)  civilian
Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli             1961      (+1975)  civilian (caretaker)
João Belchior Marques Goulart        1961-1964 (+1976)  civilian
Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli             1964      (+1975)  civilian (caretaker)
Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco   1964-1967 (+1967)D military
Arturo da Costa e Silva              1967-1969 (+1969)  military
Rademaker/Mello e Souza/Lyra Tavares 1969               military (triunvirate) 
Emilio Garrastazú Médici             1969-1974 (+1985)  military
Ernesto Geisel Beckmann              1974-1979 (+1996)  military
João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo 1979-1985          military
José Sarney                          1985-1990          civilian
Fernando Collor de Mello             1990-1992          civilian
Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco       1992-1995          civilian
Fernando Henrique Cardoso            1995-              civilian


 
 

CHILE


Presidents

FP: Popular Front
APL: Popular Liberating Alliance
PC: Conservative Party
PDC: Christian Democratic Party
PS: Socialist Party
 
Juan Antonio Ríos Morales  1942-1945 (+1946) FP
Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez    1945-1946 ?       FP (acting)
Vicente Merino Bielech     1946      (+1977) FP
Gabriel González Videla    1946-1952 (+1980) FP 
Carlos Ibáñez del Campo    1952-1958 (+1960) APL
Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez 1958-1964 (+1986) PC 
Eduardo Frei Montalva      1964-1970 (+1982) PDC
Salvador Allende Gossens   1970-1973 (+)S    PS (1)
Augusto Pinochet Ugarte    1973-1990         military (2)
Patricio Aylwin Azócar     1990-1994         PDC (3)
Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle    1994-             PDC (3)

(1) Salvador Allende headed the leftist coalition Popular Union (UP)

 (2) General Augusto Pinochet headed the 1973-1974 Military Junta as Army commander and from 1974 to 1990 ruled as "supreme chief of the State". Also members of the Military Junta or Ruling Council were: admiral José Toribio Merino Castro (Navy commander, +1996), general Gustavo Leigh Guzmán (Air commander, replaced in 1978 by general Fernando Matthei Aubel) and general César Mendoza Durán (director of the Carabineros corp, +1996)

 (3) The PDC comprises with others the coalition Concertation of Parties for Democracy (CPD) since 1989 



 
 

COLOMBIA


Presidents

C.MJ: Chairman of the Military Junta
Alberto Lleras Camargo     1945-1946 (+1990)  liberal
Mariano Ospina Pérez       1946-1950 (+1976)  conservative
Laureano Gómez Castro      1950-1951 (+1965)  conservative
Gilberto Alzate Avendaño   1951      ?        (interim)
Roberto Urdaneta Arbeláez  1951-1953 (+1972)  conservative (interim)
Laureano Gómez Castro      1953      (+1965)  conservative
Gustavo Rojas Pinilla      1953-1957 (+1975)  military 
Gabriel Paris              1957-1958          C.MJ, military (1)
Alberto Lleras Camargo     1958-1962 (+1990)  liberal 
Guillermo León Valencia    1962-1966 (+1971)  conservative
Carlos Lleras Restrepo     1966-1970 (+1994)  liberal
Misael Pastrana Borrero    1970-1974 (+1997)  conservative
Alfonso López Michelsen    1974-1978          liberal
Julio César Turbay Ayala   1978-1982          liberal
Belisario Betancur Cuartas 1982-1986          conservative
Virgilio Barco Vargas      1986-1990 (+1997)  liberal
César Gaviria Trujillo     1990-1994          liberal
Ernesto Samper Pizano      1994-              liberal

(1) 1957-1958 Military Junta members: Gabriel Paris, Rubén Piedrahíta Arango (+1979), Deogracias Fonseca, Luis Ernesto Ordoñez, Rafael Navas Pardo 

 

COSTA RICA


Presidents

PUN: National Union Party
PLN: National Liberation Party
PUSC: Social Christian Unity Party
UO: Oposition Union

 

Teodoro Picado                 1944-1948 (+1960)
Santos León Herrera            1948      ?       (acting)
José Figueres Ferrer           1948-1949 (+1990)    
Otilio Ulate Blanco            1949-1952 (+1973) PUN
Alberto Oreamuno Flores        1952-1953
José Figueres Ferrer           1953-1958 (+1990) PLN
Mario Echandi Jiménez          1958-1962         PUSC
Francisco Orlich Bolmarich     1962-1966 (+1969) PLN
José Joaquín Trejos Fernández  1966-1970         PUN
José Figueres Ferrer           1970-1974 (+1990) PLN
Daniel Oduber Quirós           1974-1978 (+1991) PLN
Rodrigo Carazo Odio            1978-1982         UO
Luis Alberto Monge Álvarez     1982-1986         PLN
Óscar Arias Sánchez            1986-1990         PLN
Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier 1990-1994         PUSC 
José María Figueres Olsen      1994-             PLN


 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


Presidents

C.CS: Chairman of the Council of State
PRD: Dominican Revolutionary Party
PRSC: Social Christian Reformist Party
PLD: Dominican Liberation Party

 

Rafael Leónidas Trujillo           1942-1952 (+1961)A civilian
Héctor Bienvenido Trujillo         1952-1960          civilian (1)
Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo           1960-1961          civilian (1)
Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo           1961-1962          C.CS
Pedro Rodríguez Echevarría         1962      ?        Military Junta
Rafael Filiberto Bonelly           1962-1963 (+1979)  C.CS (acting)
Juan Bosch Gaviño                  1963               PRD
Emilio de los Santos               1963      ?        Civilian Junta  
Donald Reid Cabral                 1963-1965          Civilian Junta (2)
José Molina Ureña                  1965      ?        civilian (acting)
Pedro Benoit                       1965      ?        Junta
Francisco Caamaño Deñó             1965      (+1973)A Junta
Antonio Imbert Barreras            1965      ?        Junta (acting)
Héctor García-Godoy Cáceres        1965-1966 (+1970)  PRD (acting)
Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo           1966-1978          PRSC
Silvestre Antonio Guzmán Fernández 1978-1982 (+)S     PRD
Jacobo Majluta Azar                1982      (+1996)  PRD (interim)
Salvador Jorge Blanco              1982-1986          PRD
Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo           1986-1996          PRSC 
Leonel Antonio Fernández Reyna     1996-              PLD

(1) The "Generalissimo" R. L. Trujillo went on ruling as strongman up to his assassination in 1961
(2) 1963-1965 civilian junta members: Donald Reid Cabral, R. C ceres, Emilio de Los Santos

 



 

ECUADOR


Presidents

C.MJ: Chairman of the Military Junta
C.SCG: Chairman of the Supreme Council of Government
José María Velasco Ibarra       1944-1947 (+1979)  civilian 
Carlos Mancheno Cajas           1947      ?        civilian
Mariano Suárez Veintimilla      1947      (+1980)  civilian (acting)
Carlos Julio Arosemena Tola     1947-1948 (+1952)  civilian (acting)
Galo Plaza Lasso                1948-1952 (+1987)  civilian
José María Velasco Ibarra       1952-1956 (+1979)  civilian
Camilo Ponce Enríquez           1956-1960 (+1976)  civilian
José María Velasco Ibarra       1960-1961 (+1979)  civilian
Camilo Gallegos Toledo          1961      ?        civilian (acting)
Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy   1961-1963          civilian (acting)
Raúl Castro Jijón               1963-1966          C.MJ, military (1)
Clemente Yerovi Indaburu        1966      (+1981)  civilian (acting)
Otto Arosemena Gómez            1966-1968 (+1984)  civilian (acting)
José María Velasco Ibarra       1968-1972 (+1979)  civilian
Guillermo Rodríguez Lara        1972-1976          military
Alfredo Poveda Burbano          1976-1979 (+1990)  C.SCG, military (2)
Jaime Roldós Aguilera           1979-1981 (+)D     civilian
Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea          1981-1984          civilian      
León Febres Cordero Rivadeneira 1984-1988          civilian 
Rodrigo Borja Cevallos          1988-1992          civilian
Sixto Durán-Ballén Córdovez     1992-1996          civilian
Abdalá Bucaram Ortíz            1996-1997          civilian
Rosalía Arteaga Serrano         1997               civilian (acting)
Fabián Alarcón                  1997-              civilian (interim)

(1) 1963-1966 Military Junta members: Ramón Castro Jijón, Luis Cabrera Sevilla, Guillermo Freile Posso and Mario Gándara Enríquez

 (2) 1976-1979 Supreme Council of Government (military junta) members: Alfredo Poveda Burvano (+1990), Luis Leoro Franco and Guillermo Durán Arcentales 


EL SALVADOR


Presidents:

C.RRC: Chairman of the Revolutionary Ruling Council
PRUD: Democratic United Revolutionary Party
C.J: Chairman of Junta
PCN: National Conciliation Party
PDC: Christian Democratic Party
ARENA: National Republican Alliance
Salvador Castañeda Castro            1945-1948 (+1966) civilian
Manuel de Jesús Córdova              1948-1950 ?       C.RRC, military-civilian
Óscar Osorio                         1950-1956 (+1969) PRUD
José María Lemus                     1956-1960 (+1993) PRUD
Miguel Ángel Castillo                1960-1961         C.J military-civilian (1)
Aníbal Portillo                      1961-1962         C.J military-civilian (2)
Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea           1962      ?       civilian (acting)
Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo      1962-1967 (+1973) PCN
Fidel Sánchez Hernández              1967-1972         PCN
Arturo Armando Molina Barraza        1972-1977         PCN
Carlos Humberto Romero Mena          1977-1979         PCN
Majano/Gutiérrez/Mayorga/Andino/Ungo 1979-1980         Junta, military-civilian (3)
José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes         1980-1982 (+1990) PDC
Álvaro Alfredo Magaña Borjo          1982-1984         civilian (acting)
José Napoleón Duarte Fuentes         1984-1989 (+1990) PDC
Alfredo Cristiani Burkard            1989-1994         ARENA
Armando Calderón Sol                 1994-             ARENA

(1) 1960-1961 junta members: Miguel Ángel Castillo (chairman, mil.), César Yáñez (mil.), Alfonso Rosales (mil.), Ricardo Falla (civ.), Fabio Castillo (civ.) and Renato Forin (civ.)

 (2) Five men --- three civilians and two servicemen --- comprised the 1961-1962 Directorium or Junta. Following internal rifts it was reduced to two members: Aníbal Portillo (chairman, mil.) and Feliciano Avelar (civ.)

 (3) 1979-1980 junta members: Adolfo Arnaldo Majano (mil.), Román Mayorga, Jaime Abdul Gutiérrez (mil.), Guillermo Manuel Ungo (civ., +1991) and Mario Andino. Members by 1980: Adolfo Arnoldo Majano and Jaime Abdul Gutiérrez 



 

GUATEMALA


Presidents

PAR: Revolutionary Action Party
PRN: National Redemption Party
PR: Revolutionary Party
MLN: National Liberation Movement
PID: Democratic Institutional Party
PDCG: Christian Democratic Party
MAS: Solidarity Action Movement
PAN: National Advancement Party

 

Juan José Arévalo             1945-1951 (+1990) PAR
Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán          1951-1954 (+1971) PAR
Carlos Enrique Díaz           1954      ?       military
Sánchez/Monzón/Díaz           1954              Military Junta (1)
Carlos Castillo Armas         1954-1957 (+)A    military
Luis Arturo González López    1957      (+1965) civilian (acting) 
Mendiza/Yurrita/Lorenzana     1957              Military Junta (2)
Guillermo Flores Avendaño     1957-1958 ?       military (acting)
Miguel Ramón Ydígoras Fuentes 1958-1963 (+1982) PRN
Enrique Peralta Azurdia       1963-1966 (+1997) military
Julio César Méndez Montenegro 1966-1970 (+1996) PR
Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio    1970-1974         MLN/PID
Kjell Eugenio Laugerud García 1974-1978         MLN/PID
Fernando Romeo Lucas García   1978-1982         MLN/PR
Efraín Ríos Montt             1982-1983         military
Óscar Humberto Mejía Víctores 1983-1986         military
Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo  1986-1991         PDCG
Jorge Antonio Serrano Elías   1991-1993         MAS
Ramiro de León Carpio         1993-1996         non-party
Álvaro Arzú Yrigoyen          1996-             PAN

(1) 1954 Military Junta members: José Ángel Sánchez, Elfego Monzón and Carlos Enrique Díaz

(2) 1957 Military Junta members: Óscar Mendiza, Gonzalo Yurrita and Roberto Lorenzana 



 

GUYANA


Since the independece in 1966 the British monarch was the head of the State; the Cooperative Republic was proclaimed in 1970 and the presidential system inaugurated in 1980

PNC: People's National Congress
PPP: People's Progressive Party

Presidents

Arthur Chung        1970-1980
Forbes Burnham      1980-1985 (+)     PNC
Hugh Desmond Hoyte  1985-1992         PNC
Cheddi Jagan        1992-1997 (+)     PPP
Samuel Hinds        1997              PPP
Janet Jagan         1997-             PPP

Prime ministers

Forbes Burnham      1966-1980 (+1985) PNC
Ptolemy Reid        1980-1984         PNC
Hugh Desmond Hoyte  1984-1985         PNC
Hamilton Green      1985-1992         PNC
Samuel Hinds        1992-1997         PPP
Janet Jagan         1997              PPP
Samuel Hinds        1997-             PPP


 

HAITI


Presidents

C.NCG: Chairman of the National Council of Government

 

ELIE LESCOT                 1941-1946 (+1974) civilian  
DUMARSAIS ESTIME            1946-1950 (+1953) civilian
PAUL MAGLOIRE               1950-1956         civilian/military   
JOSEPH NEMOURS PIERRE-LOUIS 1956-1957 ?       civilian (acting)
FRANK SYLVAIN               1957      ?       civilian (acting)
LEON CANTAVE                1957      ?       civilian (acting)
DANIEL FIGNOLE              1957      (+1986) civilian (acting)
ANTOINE KEBREAU             1957      (+1963) military
FRANCOIS DUVALIER           1957-1971 (+)     civilian 
JEAN-CLAUDE DUVALIER        1971-1986         civilian
HENRY NAMPHY                1986-1988         C.NCG, military
LESLIE MANIGAT              1988              civilian
HENRY NAMPHY                1988              military
PROSPER AVRIL               1988-1990         military
HERARD ABRAHAM              1990              military 
ERTHA PASCAL TROUILLOT      1990-1991         civilian (caretaker)
JEAN-BERTRAND ARISTIDE      1991              civilian
RAOUL CEDRAS                1991              military junta (1)
JOSEPH NERETTE              1991-1992         military (interim) (2)
EMILE JONASSAINT            1994      (+1995) military (interim) (2)
JEAN-BERTRAND ARISTIDE      1994-1996         civilian (3)
RENE PREVAL                 1996-             civilian
(1) In 1991-1994 Raoul Cedras, Philippe Biamby and Joseph Francois turned up as members of the virtual military trimvirate

(2) Interim civilian president under military rule

(3) J.-B. Aristide was recognized as legal president of Haiti in exile by the international community during the military rule 


Prime ministers

MARTIAL CELESTIN            1988
RENE PREVAL                 1991
JEAN-JACQUES HONORAT        1991-1992 (interim)
MARC BAZIN                  1992-1993 (acting) (4)
ROBERT MALVAL               1993-1994 (acting) (4)
SMARCK MICHEL               1994-1995
CLAUDETTE WERLEIGH          1995-1996
ROSNY SMARTH                1996-1997
(4) "Acting" civilian prime minister, under military rule 

 

HONDURAS


Presidents

C.MJ: Chairman of the Military Junta
PN: National Party
PLH: Honduran Liberal Party

 

Tiburcio Carías Andino          1933-1949 (+1969)  PN
Juan Manuel Gálvez              1949-1954 (+1955)  PN
Juan Lozano Díaz                1954-1956 (+1957)  PN
Roque Rodríguez                 1956-1957          C.MJ, military (1)
Ramón Villeda Morales           1957-1963 (+1971)  PLH
Oswaldo López Arellano          1963-1965          C.MJ, military
Oswaldo López Arellano          1965-1971          PN
Ramón Ernesto Cruz              1971-1972 (+1985)  PN
Oswaldo López Arellano          1972-1975          military 
Juan Alberto Melgar Castro      1975-1978 (+1987)  military 
Policarpo Paz García            1978-1980          C.MJ, military (2)
Policarpo Paz García            1980-1982          civilian (caretaker)
Roberto Suazo Córdova           1982-1986          PLH
José Azcona Hoyo                1986-1990          PLH
Rafael Leonardo Callejas Romero 1990-1994          PN
Carlos Roberto Reina Idiáquez   1994-1998          PLH
Carlos Roberto Flores Facussé   1998-              PLH

(1) 1956-1957 Military Junta members: Roberto Gálvez, Roque Rodríguez, Héctor Carraccioli
(2) 1978-1980 military junta members: Paz García, Celaya, Álvarez 

 

JAMAICA


(The British Monarch is the head of the State; he is represented by a Governor-General)

 

Prime Ministers

PNP: People's National Party
JLP: Jamaica Labour Party

 

Alexander Bustamante     1962-1967 (+1977)  JLP
Donald Burns Sangster    1967      (+)      JLP
Hugh Lawson Shearer      1967-1972          JLP
Michael Manley           1972-1980 (+1997)  PNP
Edward Seaga             1980-1989          JLP
Michael Manley           1989-1992 (+1997)  PNP
Percival James Patterson 1992-              PNP


 

MEXICO


Presidents

PRI: Institutional Revolutionary Party

Manuel Ávila Camacho          1940-1946 (+1955) PRI

Miguel Alemán Valdés          1946-1952 (+1983) PRI

Adolfo Ruiz Cortines          1952-1958 (+1973) PRI

Adolfo López Mateos           1958-1964 (+1969) PRI

Gustavo Díaz Ordaz            1964-1970 (+1979) PRI

Luis Echeverría Álvarez       1970-1976         PRI

José López-Portillo y Pacheco 1976-1982         PRI

Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado   1982-1988         PRI

Carlos Salinas de Gortari     1988-1994         PRI

Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León 1994-             PRI



 

NICARAGUA


Presidents

JGRN: Ruling Junta of National Reconstruction
Anastasio Somoza García      1937-1947 (+1956)A
Leonardo Argüello            1947      (+1947)
Benjamïn Lacayo Sacasa       1947      (+1959)
Vïctor Manuel Román Reyes    1947-1950 (+)
Anastasio Somoza García      1950-1956 (+)A
Luis Somoza Debayle          1956-1963 (+1967)
René Schick Gutiérrez        1963-1966 (+)
Lorenzo Guerrero Gutiérrez   1966-1967 ?        (acting)
Anastasio Somoza Debayle     1967-1972 (+1980)A
Lacayo/Lobo/Agüero           1972-1974          (1)
Anastasio Somoza Debayle     1974-1979 (+1980)A
Francisco Urcuyo Maliano     1979      ?
                             1979-1985 JGRN     (2)  
Daniel Ortega Saavedra       1985-1990
Violeta Barrios de Chamorro  1990-1997
Arnoldo Alemán               1997-
(1) 1972-1974 Triumvirate members: Roberto Martínez Lacayo, Alfonso Lobo Cordero and Fernando Agüero

(2) 1979-1980 JGRN's members: Daniel Ortega Saavadra, Moisés Hassán Morales, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, Alfonso Robelo and Sergio Ramírez Mercado.
1980-1981 JGRN's members: Daniel Ortega Saavedra, Moisés Hassán Morales, Sergio Ramírez Mercado, Rafael Córdova Rivas and Arturo Cruz.
1981-1985 JGRN's members: Daniel Ortega Saavedra (as coordinator), Sergio Ramírez Mercado and Rafael Córdova Rivas 



 

PANAMA


Presidents

ENRIQUE ADOLFO JIMENEZ        1945-1948 (+1970)
DOMINGO DIAS AROSEMENA        1948-1949 (+1949)
DANIEL CHANIS                 1949      (+1961)
ROBERTO FRANCISCO CHIARI      1949      (+1981)
ARNULFO ARIAS                 1949-1951 (+1988)
ALCIBIADES AROSEMENA          1951-1952 (+1958)
JOSE A. REMON CANTERA         1952-1955 (+)A
JOSE RAMON GUIZADO            1955      (+1964) (acting)
RICARDO ARIAS ESPINOSA        1955-1956 (+1993)
ERNESTO DE LA GUARDIA         1956-1960 (+1983)
ROBERTO FRANCISCO CHIARI      1960-1964 (+1981)
MARCO AURELIO ROBLES          1964-1968 ?
ARNULFO ARIAS                 1968      (+1988) 
     ** Ruling Junta **       1968-1969         (1)
JOSE MARIA PINILLA            1969      (+1979) (2)
DEMETRIO LAKAS                1969-1978           
ARISTIDES ROYO                1978-1982             
RICARDO DE LA ESPRIELLA       1982-1984         (3)
JORGE ILLUECA                 1984              
NICOLAS ARDITO BARLETTA       1984-1985         
ERIC ARTURO DEL VALLE         1985-1988          
MANUEL SOLIS PALMA            1988-1989
FRANCISCO RODRIGUEZ           1989
GUILLERMO ENDARA              1989-1994
ERNESTO PEREZ BALLADARES      1994-
(1) Omar Torrijos ruled as the Junta leader in the term 1968-1972, as prime minister in 1972-1978, and untill his death in plane crash in 1981, went on as de facto leader.

(2) Members of the military junta: Jose Manuel Pinilla and Bolivar Urrutia

(3) General Manuel Antonio Noriega, commander of the National Guard, became the strongman in 1983-1989. 



 

PARAGUAY


Presidents

HIGINIO MORIÑIGO        1940-1948 (+1983)        
JUAN MANUEL FRUTOS      1948      (+1960) (acting)
JUAN NATALICIO GONZALEZ 1948-1949 (+1966) 
RAIMUNDO ROLON          1949      (+1981) (acting)
FELIPE MOLAS LOPEZ      1949      (+1954) 
FEDERICO CHAVEZ         1949-1954 (+1978)
TOMAS ROMERO PEREIRA    1954      (+1982) (acting) 
ALFREDO STROESSNER      1954-1989         
ANDRES RODRIGUEZ        1989-1993 (+1997)        
JUAN CARLOS WASMOSY     1993-

PERU


FD: Democratic Front
PDP: Pradista Democratic Party
AP: Popular Action
APRA: American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
C ´90: New Majority/Change '90

Presidents

José Luis Bustamante Rivero      1945-1948 (+1989)  FD (1)
Manuel Apolinario Odría Amoretti 1948-1956 (+1974)  military
Manuel Prado Ugarteche           1956-1962 (+1967)  PDP
Ricardo Pío Pérez Godoy          1962      (+1982)  military 
Nicolás Lindley López            1962-1963 ?        military 
Fernando Belaúnde Terry          1963-1968          AP
Juan Velasco Alvarado            1968-1975 (+1977)  military 
Francisco Morales Bermúdez       1975-1980          military     
Fernando Belaúnde Terry          1980-1985          AP
Alan García Pérez                1985-1990          APRA
Alberto Fujimori Kenyo           1990-              C '90
(1) Coalition dominated by APRA 

 

SURINAM


Presidents

NMC: National Military Council

 

JOHAN H. E. FERRIER           1975-1980 civilian
HENDRICK R. CHIN A SEN        1980      civilian
HENDRICK R. CHIN A SEN        1980-1982 NMC, military (1)
LACHMIPERSAD F. RAMDAT-MISIER 1982-1988 NMC, military (acting) (1)
RAMSEWAK SHANKAR              1988-1990 civilian
IWAN GRAANOOGST               1990      military
JOHANNES S. KRAAG             1990-1991 civilian
RONALD VENETIAAN              1991-1996 civilian
JULES WIJDENBOSCH             1996-
(1) Civilian presidents under military rule. The 1980-1988 NMC was chaired by Desire Bouterse

 


Prime Ministers

HENCK ARRON               1975-1980
HENDRICK R. CHIN A SEN    1980-1982
HENRY NEYHORST            1982-1983
ERROL ALIBUX              1983-1984 
WIM UDENHOUT              1984-1986
PRETAAPNARIAN RADHAKISHUN 1986-1987
JULES WIJDENBOSCH         1987-1988
HENCK ARRON               1988-1990
JULES WIJDENBOSCH         1991
JULES ADJODHIA            1991-1996
PRETAAPNARIAN RADHAKISHUN 1996-


 

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

Eric Williams ruled since the independence in 1962 as Prime Minister, with the British monarch as the head of the State; the Republic was proclaimed in 1976

 

Presidents

Ellis Clarke             1976-1987
Noor Mohammad Hassanali  1987-1997
Arthur Robinson          1997-

Prime Ministers

PNM: People's National Movement
NAR: National Alliance for Reconstruction
UNC: United National Congress

 

Eric Williams            1976-1981 (+)     PNM
George Chambers          1981-1986 (+1997) PNM
Arthur Robinson          1986-1991         NAR
Patrick Manning          1991-1995         PNM
Basdeo Panday            1995-             UNC


 

URUGUAY


Presidents

PN: National (Blanco) Party
PC: Colorado Party
NRG: National Ruling Council (collegiate body formed by PN and PC)
Juan José Amézaga                  1943-1947 (+1956) 
Tomás Berreta                      1947      (+)      PC
Luis Conrado Batlle Berres         1947-1951 (+1964)  PC
Andrés Martínez Trueba             1951-1952 (+1959)  
Andrés Martínez Trueba             1952-1954 (+1959)  1st NRC
Daniel Fernández Crespo            1954-1955 (+1964)  1st NRC    
Luis Conrado Batlle Berres         1955-1956 (+1964)  1st NRC 
Alberto Fermín Zubiría             1956-1957 ?        1st NRC
Arturo Lezama                      1957-1958 (+1964)  1st NRC
Carlos Fisher                      1958-1959 ?        1st NRC
Benito Nardone                     1959-1960 (+1964)  2nd NRC
Martín Echegoyen                   1960-1961 (+1974)  2nd NRC
Eduardo Víctor Haedo               1961-1962 (+1970)  2nd NRC
Escribano Faustino Harrison        1962-1963 (+1963)  2nd NRC
Daniel Fernández Crespo            1963-1964 (+1964)  3rd NRC
Luis Giannattasio                  1964-1965 (+1965)  3rd NRC
Washington Beltrán                 1965-1966          3rd NRC
Alberto Héber Usher                1966-1967 ?        3rd NRC
Óscar Diego Gestido                1967      (+)      PC
Jorge Pacheco Areco                1967-1972          PC
Juan María Bordaberry Arocena      1972-1976          PC
Alberto Demicheli                  1976      (+1980)  military, interim (1) 
Aparicio Méndez                    1976-1981 (+1988)  military (1)
Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Armellino 1981-1985          military 
Julio María Sanguinetti Cairolo    1985-1990          PC
Luis Alberto Lacalle Herrera       1990-1995          PN
Julio María Sanguinetti Cairolo    1995-              PC
(1) Civilian president under military rule 

 

VENEZUELA


Presidents

C.RRJ: Chairman of the Revolutionary Ruling Junta
C.RJ: Chairman of the Ruling Junta
AD: Democratic Action
COPEI: Social Christian Party
CD: Democratic Convergence

 

Isaías Medina Angarita         1941-1945 (+1953) civilian
Rómulo Betancourt              1945              C.RRJ, military-civilian
Rómulo Betancourt              1945-1948 (+1981) AD (interim)
Rómulo Gallegos Freire         1948      (+1969) AD
Carlos Delgado Chalbaud        1948-1950 (+)A    C.RJ, military (1)
Germán Suárez Flamerich        1950-1952 ?       C.RJ, military (2)
Marcos Pérez Jiménez           1952-1958         military
Wolfgang Larrazábal            1958      (+1970) C.RJ, military (3)
Edgard Sanabria                1958-1959 (+1989) (interim)
Rómulo Betancourt              1959-1964 (+1981) AD
Raúl Leoni                     1964-1969 (+1972) AD
Rafael Caldera Rodríguez       1969-1974         COPEI 
Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez  1974-1979         AD
Luis Herrera Campins           1979-1984         COPEI 
Jaime Lusinchi                 1984-1989         AD
Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez  1989-1993         AD
Octavio Lepage                 1993              (acting)
Ramón José Velásquez           1993-1994         (interim)     
Rafael Caldera Rodríguez       1994-             CD

(1) 1948-1950 military Junta members: Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, Marcos Pérez Jiménez and Luis Llovera Páez

 (2) 1950-1952 military Junta members: Germán Suárez Flamerich (civ.), Marcos Pérez Jiménez and Luis Llovera Páez

 (3) 1958 military Junta members: Wolfgang Larrazábal, Roberto Casanova and Abel Romero 



 

Roberto Ortiz de Zarate

ziaorarr@jet.es